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The Reagan-Gorbachev Statement: Background to #ReaffirmOurFuture

The 1985 statement that “a nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought” was first made by Presidents Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev at their summit in Geneva. This year, Presidents Biden, Putin and Xi all reaffirmed this principle. Why have some countries declined to reaffirm it and could this change?

19 November 2021

Policy briefs & reports


Open Skies in the Arctic: Challenges and Opportunities

Both Russia and NATO member states are increasing their military presence and activities in the Arctic, and threat perceptions on both sides are intensifying, write Katarina Kertysova and Dr. Alexander Graef. Cooperative aerial observation, which lies at the heart of the Open Skies Treaty, has a useful role to play in mitigating military security risks and addressing environmental challenges in the region.