Based on study visits, discussions and interviews with European diplomats, politicians and strategic advisers, this report considers how European perspectives toward Russia have changed following Crimea’s annexation.
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As the Iran nuclear deal enters its fourth year of implementation, ELN Policy Fellow Axel Hellman argues that its future looks more uncertain than ever. European leaders are under growing pressure to sustain the agreement and with growing frustration in Tehran and threats to European unity, face a number of challenges in the near term.
In the face of US sanctions, exemptions for humanitarian trade in Iran are proving insufficient. In a new policy brief, authors argue for the creation of a new humanitarian special purpose vehicle (H-SPV) to avoid any crises.
As the future of the Iran nuclear deal looks increasingly uncertain, European leaders must take measures to protect economic and political relations with Iran. Axel Hellman and Dr Bijan Khajehpour argue that European SMEs can play a significant role in maintaining trade between Europe and Iran.
With the international nuclear agreement with Iran in peril following the U.S. withdrawal from it, Esfandyar Batmanghelidj and Axel Hellman present a vision of a new banking architecture that could be at the heart of a European package to protect Europe-Iran economic ties and help sustain the deal in spite of U.S. sanctions.
Axel Hellman and Denitsa Raynova look at the state of transatlantic relations and argue that European leaders should not distance themselves from the United States, but coordinate closely where possible while credibly demonstrating that they are willing to take on a greater share of responsibility for regional and international security.