Dr Ian Anthony examines confidence and security building measures (CSBMs) in Central and Eastern Europe and notes steps made by countries such as Belarus, Poland, and Ukraine to create and enhance bilateral discussion formats. This policy brief analyses these measures and examines their applicability to the current conflict in Ukraine and the European security order that will follow the war.
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The Russia-Ukraine war has revealed Europe’s inability to deter Russia from invading Ukraine, writes Adérito Vicente. He argues that the reasons include EU’s security idiosyncrasies, nuclear policy choices, divergent political interests, energy dependency and ineffective sanctions policy on Russia.
Russia’s war in Ukraine has already devastated Ukraine, and the situation could get even worse: Carlo Trezza argues that Russia could, for example, resort to chemical and/or nuclear weapons. To stand up to Russia’s aggression, there are many actions that both NATO and the UN can take to pressure Russia.
Following Russia’s military action, the United States will sooner or later turn back to its “Pivot to Asia” due to China’s challenge to its global primacy, leaving the EU to deal with Russia relatively alone. The EU finds itself at a turning point in its history where it needs to take decisive steps towards building a comprehensive security and defence strategy, writes Iren Marinova.
The recent call between President Biden and French President Emmanuel Macron has led some to believe that the US administration might be ready to shift its traditional position on EU defence. Max Bergmann, Senior Fellow at American Progress, argues that now is the time for the EU to come up with something tangible for America to get behind.