The UK-US-Europe ‘bridge’ on which London rested has now, for the most part, gone. Britain must now look to new styles of engagement in order to ensure strategic relevance and effective defence coordination.
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NATO now needs to ensure that the INF Treaty’s collapse will neither exacerbate NATO-Russia confrontation, nor lead to a destabilizing arms build-up in Europe.
As most of the treaties that formed the core of the arms control system are either gone or being undermined, Russia and the United States no longer want to lead by example by carrying the bilateral burden of disarmament.
The US has committed to give security guarantees to the DPRK, but does the precedent of the Budapest Memorandum mean that these will be legally binding? Italy’s former Ambassador to the Republic of Korea, Carlo Trezza, explores the use of security assurances vis-à-vis guarantees.
Dr Hans Blix, Director-General Emeritus of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and ELN member, argues that, in the case of the JCPOA, the US government did not “withdraw” from an agreement but violated a legally binding UN Security Council decision.
The collapse of the deal threatens the future of nuclear diplomacy and the credibility of European foreign and security policy. Creative solutions to counteract US sanctions must be found as the 60 day deadline approaches.