Moscow views a lack of tangible deliverables as a serious impediment to the effectiveness of the P5.
US engagement in the process looks distinct from that of other members as it’s inextricably linked to its perception of the global security environment.
Beijing has re-started the P5 process after a break in formal conferences in 2017-2018 and has led on the glossary and Bangkok Treaty workstreams.
During the UK’s tenure as coordinator, London has advanced the doctrines discussion and transparency-building efforts in spite of stark disagreements.
In February, the ELN and King’s College London coordinated the civil society events at the London P5 Process meeting.