Carrying out a “nuclear warning” – a non-repeatable strike intended to restore deterrence in case an adversary miscalculates – means the failure of deterrence. The very real consequence is escalation to a nuclear exchange.
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Carlo Trezza looks at President Macron’s speech at the Ecole de Guerre last month on the possible role of French nuclear deterrence in the context of European security and defence.
What is the best path for Europe to take in 2020? A recent meeting of experts and officials, convened by the ELN and the Hanns Seidel Foundation (HSF), weighed the options.
President Macron’s recent remarks that NATO is “brain dead” can only be understood as an extension of already formulated policies, but it comes with risks, Axel Hellman and Andreas Persbo find on a recent trip to Paris.
On the day of the second ministerial meeting of the European Intervention Initiative (E2I) in the Netherlands, Alice Billon-Galland spoke to Dutch newspaper De Volkskrant about what is at stake for France and what E2I means for European security.
New analysis by Bourse & Bazaar and the European Leadership Network evaluates INSTEX’s design and operationalization.