As the future of the Iran nuclear deal looks increasingly uncertain, European leaders must take measures to protect economic and political relations with Iran. Axel Hellman and Dr Bijan Khajehpour argue that European SMEs can play a significant role in maintaining trade between Europe and Iran.
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With European elections upcoming and the shape of the next Commission unknowable, this report is not an agenda for the years to come but lessons for the next Commission from developments in European defence over the last two years.
Last week’s Helsinki Summit has brought renewed focus to Russian actions in cyberspace. In a new report, ELN Research Associate Joss Meakins explores Russia’s conflicted approach to cyber deterrence and proposes new ways to create a more stable Russia-West cyber deterrence relationship.
Dr Heather Williams, Lecturer in the Defence Studies Department at King’s College London (KCL) and Amelia Morgan, Research Assistant at KCL’s Centre for Science and Security Studies (CSSS) examine how the United States and Russia could become more responsible nuclear actors and strengthen the global nuclear order at a time when it is most fragile.
In a report released ahead of the NATO summit in Brussels, Sir Adam Thomson, ELN Director and former UK Ambassador to NATO assesses three core challenges to NATO solidarity – (1) Russia, (2) NATO’s engagement southwards, and (3) transatlantic burdensharing – and offers specific recommendations in each area for the summit declaration, communique and EU-NATO Joint Declaration.
With the international nuclear agreement with Iran in peril following the U.S. withdrawal from it, Esfandyar Batmanghelidj and Axel Hellman present a vision of a new banking architecture that could be at the heart of a European package to protect Europe-Iran economic ties and help sustain the deal in spite of U.S. sanctions.
In this latest ELN Report, Katarzyna Kubiak examines the state of play and recommends measures to overcome the crisis over the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.
ELN Director Sir Adam Thomson and Policy Fellow Alice Billon-Galland argue that a new approach to strategic autonomy is needed to provide a long-term framework to increase Europe’s ability to protect its security interests.
The current Russia-NATO deterrence relationship is unstable, and dangerously so. The authors argue that the interplay between the deterrence postures operated by both Russia and NATO has not been sufficiently appreciated during their development – deterrence cannot be effective if your target does not understand your actions.